Science & Tech


The determination of glucose levels in the blood is painful, costly and error prone. Various attempts have been made to provide a true non-invasive measurement of blood glucose. These include efforts that either misinterpret or mis claim non-invasive (to minimally invasive) and/or blood glucose (to interstitial glucose). When the constraints above are enforced along with the criteria of a method strongly rooted in physics, the list is greatly shortened.

Socrates Health Solutions has pursued this with an applied focus on fundamental physics without the lax hand-waving often found in the space. The sensor is based on centuries of proven study into the optical polarization properties of glucose in solutions. Socrates has found and developed a unique development path that has allowed us to apply this technique through tissue to provide a direct measurement of blood glucose in a truly non-invasive manner.

Polarization & Glucose

A transverse electromagnetic wave (We’ll call it simply light here for ease) has a plane that the electric field oscillates within. In optics this defines the plane of polarization. Further, certain materials tend to alter the optical polarization of a light beam. Some limit the transmission of polarized light (like polarizing sunglasses or LCD screens) while other materials rotate the polarization state. This property is called optical activity and has been used as a chemical detection and quantification method as early as 1849. The glucose molecule has very high optical activity for the wavelengths we are using in a general sense – and specifically within the realm of human physiology it dominates.


Recent Bench Test Results


  • Demonstrates accuracy and precision in the practical diabetes management range, 45-450 mg/dL.
  • 100 data points.
  • Through a tissue “phantom” which  mimics the human ear in absorption and scattering.
  • Comparison of reading was made against a very precise (within 1%) mixture of glucose and distilled water.

Resolution of rotation in the microradian range equivalent to 10 mg/dL precision

November 2019

  • Technical challenge has been to resolve rotation angles at a microradian range.
  • This would be a precision level equivalent to 1/1000th of a tick on a clock.
  • We have achieved less than 24 microradian precision in both our bench environment and in early human testing.

Aggregate Results of Single Read Device

March 2018

  • Prototype tests demonstrating the ability to track a wider range of voltage responses related to BG fluctuations in humans
  • Nine different tests, four test subjects. Consumption of carbs during the test to increase BG levels. All starting in a fasting state
  • Two of the four test subjects are Type 1 diabetics with Test 2 and Test E2 representing their results
  • Freestyle Lite Glucose Meter was used to obtain the mg/dl blood glucose level
  • Glucose measurement range: 80 – 245 mg/dL

Single Test Subject-Continuous Monitor

November 2017

  • Demonstrates the ability to track voltage response related to BG fluctuations in a continuous manner
  • Test subject started in a fasting state
  • A 7.5oz Dr. Pepper was consumed 10 minutes after the test started
  • Voltage response of continuous monitor to glucose consumption is shown
  • Freestyle Lite Glucose Meter was used to obtain the mg/dL blood glucose level corresponding to the monitor